Готуємось до ЗНО

On the way to ZNO. Exam Preparation Tips

YELENA KONSTANTINOVA ,

Honoured Teacher of Ukraine,

Head of the intensive English language

schools Methodology Center of Kyiv.

The words “assessment” and “testing” are often enough to send goose bumps up the arms of many students and teachers. By learning a few assessment strategies, however, you can help your students through even the most anxious moments and help them score higher in the process.

Test preparation provides students with strategies that will enable them to focus on content and not become frustrated with unfamiliar formats and situations. These tips can help your students improve their performance at ZNO and their comfort with assessment in general.

Writing can be some people’s favourite or least favourite type of exam. The good part of the writing exam is that students can truly explain their knowledge of the subject matter in many ways. People with better writing skills tend to favor these types of exams, if they know the strategy.

The tips below will help prepare your students for the “writing” part of the assessment.

Let’s start from letter writing.

Letter Writing.

Informal Letters

To people you know well

(friends, parents…)

informal style

  • Personal letter
  • Letter of advice
  • Letter of invitation
  • Letter  of apology
Transactional Letters

Which respond to written information (advertisements, notes, other letters…) or visual prompts (maps, drawings…)

formal/informal style

  • Letter  of asking for/giving information
  • Letter of complaint
  • Letter of application
  • Letter of apology
Formal Letters

To people in an official position or people you don’t know well (manager, director…)        formal style

  • Letter of application
  • Letter to the editor
  • Letter of complaint
  • Letters of request

Semi-formal Letters

To people you do not know well or people you know but you want to sound polite and respectful (teachers, your friend’s parents…)

LETTERS

Стратегії виконання

  1. Уважно прочитайте завдання і визначте головні питання, про які треба написати. З’ясуйте формат письмового завдання (вид листа).
  2. З’ясуйте, кому адресовано  листа і виберіть відповідний стиль.
  3. Складіть план листа і підберіть необхідні слова і висловлення.
  4. Пишіть  відповідно до плану і пам’ятайте про поділ тексту на абзаці.
  5. Намагайтеся вживати не тільки прості речення, але й складнопідрядні, використовуючи засоби логічного зв’язку.
  6. Намагайтеся правильно використовувати часові форми дієслова, різноманітні граматичні структури.
  7. Уважно перевірте роботу, звертаючи увагу на наступне:
  • Чи дотримано  формат  і стиль висловлювання;
  • Чи логічно поділено текст на абзаці
  • Чи вірно використані засоби зв’язку всередині речень, між реченнями, між абзацами;
  • Перевірте написання кожного слова.

Структура листа

Що потрібно

Рекомендації

Приклади

1 Address Адреса відправника вказується у правому верхньому куті. 2. Victoria street

Oxford

OX2 006

2 Date Під адресою (пропустивши рядок) Saturday,  March 1st, 2012

September 9, 2012

3 Greeting Лист починається зі звертання, після якого ставиться кома (з нового рядку, пропустивши рядок) Dear Sally,

Dear Mr. Brown,

My darling,

4 Introduction На початку листа автор зазвичай

  • дякує адресатові за заздалегідь отриману кореспонденцію
  • вибачається, що не писав раніше
Thanks for…, Many thanks for…, How nice of you …, I was awfully glad to get your letter…

I must apologise for not writing…,

I really should have written sooner….

5 Main Body В ній мають бути розкриті всі аспекти, вказані в завданні. Кожний абзац починається з нового рядка.
6 Conclusion В кінці листа автор згадує про подальші контакти (з нового рядка) I’ll write again soon.

Looking forward to seeing you.

Hope to hear from you soon.

7 Ending Ця фраза залежить від ступеню близькості автора і адресата. Після неї завжди ставиться кома(з нового рядка). I love you so much,

Lots of love,      Much love,

Best wishes,      All the best,

Yours…..,

8 Signature Особисті листи підписують без вказівки прізвища(з нового рядка). Sally   ,    David
Informal letters

Моделі листів і основні рекомендації до написання листів.

Personal Letters .

  • Your address

    The date

    Greeting

    Dear….,

    Introduction (§ 1-opening remarks)

    Main Body (§§ 2-3/4 – development of the subject )

    Conclusion (§ 5 - closing remarks)

    Ending (say goodbye and sign your name)

    Greeting

- never begin Dear friend / Pen friend; write                                                                                                          - the name   Dear Jane,

  • Introduction

- reasons  for writing;

- an apology   for a delay in writing

- a thank you to the person for his last

letter                                                                                                        -questions / wishes about   recent events

  • Main Body

- divide your letter into paragraphs and

include 2-3 points in each paragraph

  • Conclusion

-an excuse to stop writing;

-  greetings to  the person’s family / friends

- an invitation

- a promise to write again soon,

-  a request to the person to reply soon

  • Ending

Lots of love/ Best wishes + your first name

ATTENTION! You shouldn’t write addresses and dates in your ZNO letter!

Useful Vocabulary

Introductory Phrases

Closing Phrases

  • It was great to get your letter….
  • Thanks for your letter.  It was great / lovely  to hear from you.
  • Thanks for your long letter. It was really  great to hear all your news, after not hearing from you for ages…..
  • Sorry I haven’t written for so long but…..
  • I’m very sorry about not replying to your letter sooner but I’ve been extremely busy.
  • Sorry for not writing earlier but I’ve………
  • How are things with you? I’m sorry I haven’t written for so long, but ……
  • I was really pleased to hear that….
  • I thought I’d better write and tell you about….
  • I would really like you to visit me this summer. Write to me and tell me your plans.
  • Thanks for sending me… Please write to me again soon, and tell me all your news.
  • Please give/send my regards (love) to your…. And write and tell me your plans for….
  • I would really love to see you. Why don’t you come and visit me this….. Write back soon!
  • If you want to know anything else, just drop me a line.
  • Well, that’s all for now. Do write back soon.
  • That’s all my news for now…

Asking for advice

Introductory Phrases Closing Phrases
Formal

  • I would appreciate it if you could give me some advice about…
  • I am writing to ask  if  you could help me with…
  • I am writing to ask for your advice.
  • Could you possibly offer your advice?
  • Could you please give me your advice?
  • I am writing to request some advice concerning…
  • I would be grateful if you could offer your advice.
  • I wonder if you could help me with a problem…

Informal

  • I am writing  to ask for your advice.
  • Can  you give me your advice?
  • Give me your advice about….
  • Can you think of anything that…?
  • I’ve got a problem and I need your advice
  • I’ve got a problem, and I think you can help.
Formal

  • I would be grateful  if you could give me your advice as soon as possible
  • I look forward to receiving your advice.
  • It would be of great help if you could advise me.
  • I would greatly appreciate your assistance in this matter.
  • I would appreciate it if you could give me your advice as soon as possible.

Informal

  • What do you think I should do?
  • Give me  /  Send me  your advice soon.
  • Do you think I should…?
  • Do you have any idea about…?
  • Please let me know what to do
  • Please let me know what you think I should do
  • I’d like to know what you think about…
  • Write back soon and tell me what you think.
  • Your advice would help me a lot.

Giving  advice

Introductory Phrases

Main Body Phrases

Closing Phrases

Formal

  • Thank you for your letter requesting….
  • I am writing in reply to your letter asking for advice about……..
  • I am writing with regard to your letter requesting advice concerning….

Informal

  • I ‘m sorry to hear ..…and I think I can help.
  • Cheer up / Don’t worry too much.
  • Don’t let it get you down
  • I’m only too glad to help.
  • I just got your letter and I think……
  • Here’s what I think you should do.
Formal

  • I strongly recommend that…….
  • I would suggest that………
  • I believe the best course of action is….
  • I would advise you to………
  • You should / ought to……..
  • If I were you I would………

Informal

  • Why don’t you……….?
  • If I were you / in your position, I’d…../ I wouldn’t…..
  • Have you thought of / about ……+ Ving?
  • Don’t forget to….
  • It would be a good idea to………
  • What you should do is…
  • How about + Ving………?  What about + Ving…..?
  • I think you should……
  • The best advice I can give you is………
  • Another good idea is to……
Formal

  • I trust you will accept  this advice
  • I hope this advice will be of help
  • I hope to have been of assistance to you/
  • I would  very much like to know if this advice was helpful  /  has been of some use.

Informal

  • I hope that this / my advice helps.
  • Let me know what happens.
  • Let me know how it went.
  • Let’s hope that things get better
  • Let’s hope that everything turns out all right.
  • Hope this helped.
  • If you do this, you would…….

Letters of apology.

Introductory Phrases Closing Phrases
Formal

  • I am writing to apologise for…
  • I must apologise for…
  • Please accept my sincere apologies for…

Informal

  • I’m sorry for…
  • I’m writing  just to say   how sorry I am about the delay in paying you back the money I owed you.
  • I just wanted to drop you a line to say how sorry I am for the way I behaved last Sunday night…
  • What can I say, except I’m sorry for…
  • I can’t describe how sorry I am and how guilty I feel….
  • I hope you’ll understand when I say that….
Formal

  • Once again, sincerest apologies for…
  • I hope you will accept my apologies…
  • I hope my apologies will be accepted…

Informal

  • I hope you believe me when I say how sorry I am…
  • I can’t tell you how sorry I am…
  • Of course I know this doesn’t excuse my dreadful behaviour, but I do hope you can forgive me.
  • I beg you to forgive me…
  • There is no excuse for…
  • Anyway, I hope you will accept my apology and that you’re not angry with me.

Letters of invitation.

Introductory Phrases

Main Body Phrases

Closing Phrases

Formal

  • We would be honoured if you could attend …
  • I cordially invite you to…
  • Your presence would be appreciated at….
  • You are invited to attend….

Informal

  • I’m writing to invite you to…..
  • I’d love it if you could come to….
  • Why don’t you come and spend some time….
  • We’re organizing a………….  and I’d love it if you could come
Formal

  • I have included some directions…..
  • I have enclosed some directions and a map
  • If you follow the directions below….

- Catch a tram / bus No… to…..

- Get off at…

-Go as far as….

-I live in an apartment building.

-My flat is on the …. floor.

  • I trust that you will find these directions helpful.
  • I hope that you are able to follow the directions given.
  • In case you do not know the exact location of the……..

Informal

  • In case you don’t know the way, I’ll give you some directions……
  • Here are a few directions , so you don’t get lost.
  • I’ll tell you how to get there.
  • I’ve written some directions , and drawn a map to help.
  • My directions shouldn’t be too difficult to follow.
Formal

  • We would be grateful if you could notify us regarding whether ……
  • Please indicate whether you will be able to attend…..

Informal

  • I hope you’ll be able to make it….
  • Hope you can come
  • Looking forward to seeing you then….
  • Please let me know as soon as possible

Accepting an invitation

Introductory Phrases

Closing Phrases

Formal

  • I am writing to thank you for the kind

invitation…….

  • Thank you for the kind invitation which I would be

honored to accept.

  • We would be delighted to attend…
  • I am writing to accept your kind invitation….
Formal

  • I look forward to seeing you
  • We await the event with great

anticipation…..

  • Thank you once more for your

kind invitation.

Refusing an invitation

Introductory Phrases

Closing Phrases

Formal

  • I am sorry to miss the opportunity of….
  • Thank you for your kind invitation. Unfortunately,

we will be unable to attend….

  • I am afraid I am unable to fit it into my schedule.
  • Due to other commitments…
  • We were really pleased to receive your invitation to……

but……

  • It will be impossible for me to attend…
Formal

  • I hope we can get together some

other time

  • I hope that in the future we

might have the opportunity to meet.

  • I am sorry to miss the

opportunity of…

  • I hope to be given the

opportunity to meet you at a later date.

Semi-formal Letters

To people you do not know well or people you know but you want to sound polite and respectful (teachers, your friend’s parents…)

Formal Letters

To people in an official position or people you don’t know well (manager, director…)         formal style

  • Letter of application
  • Letter to the editor
  • Letter of complaint
  • Letters of request

Remember that in formal letters we use:

Formal vocabulary, usually not using phrasal verbs

(‘Tolerate’ instead of ‘put up with’)

More complex sentence structure

(Knowing what a good reputation the restaurant has, I was disappointed with the service)

Punctuation using semi-colons

The library offers no facilities for borrowing videos; this is because of the high cost involved

Dear Mr/Ms (surname),                      Dear Sir/Madam/Sir or Madam,

Reason for writing

I am writing to …

I am writing with regard to …

I am writing on behalf of …

Asking questions

I would be grateful if …

I wonder if you could …

Could you …?            Could you tell me something about …?

I would particularly like to know …

I would be interested in having more details about …

Referring to their letter

As you started in your letter, …

Regarding …               Concerning … With regard to …

Complaining

I am writing to complain about …

You said … but in fact what happened …

We were supposed to stay with British families whereas we actually stayed in a guest house.

Closing

If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Please contact me if you have any further questions.

Signing off

(If Dear surname)                         Yours sincerely,

(If Dear Sir/Madam)                     Yours faithfully,

Yours,

First name + surname

Style characteristics

  • Advanced vocabulary (I am writing to enquire whether…)
  • Formal linking words / phrases ( however, for this reason…)
  • Passive voice (better : I can be contacted….  than : You can contact me…)
    • Polite forms without contractions ( I would be grateful if,,,,)

LETTERS OF APPLICATION

Dear Mr/Ms (surname),                     Dear Sir/Madam/Sir or Madam,

Reason for writing

I am writing to apply for the post/position of …

… as advertised in …

I am writing with reference/in response to your advertisement, which I saw …

I am writing in connection with your advertisement in the Daily Star on May 11th

With reference to your advertisement …

Experience

Qualifications

CV

I gained some experience while …

I am currently working as …

I have been working for … for the last four years.

I worked part-time for three years as …

At the moment I am employed by …

My qualifications include …

I have a diploma in …

I graduated from Barcelona University last year with a degree in …

Please find attached my CV

As you can see from the attached CV …

Endings

Please do not hesitate to contact me if/should you require further information.

I look forward to hearing from you.

I am available for interview at your convenience.

I shall be available for interview any day apart from Wednesdays.

Signing off

(If Dear surname)                                    Yours sincerely,

(If Dear Sir/Madam)                               Yours faithfully,

Yours,

First name + surname

Useful Vocabulary  (for a job) Only Formal style

Introductory Phrases

Main Body Phrases

Closing Phrases

  • I am writing with regard to your advertisement….
  • I am writing to apply for

the post / job / position of…., which I saw advertised in….

  • I am writing to enquire

about the job advertised in…….

  • I am writing in response

to your advertisement in… for….

  • With reference to you

r advertisement, I am writing to…

  • I am interested in

applying for the position of………

  • As you can see from my CV, I….
  • Although I do not have a lot of

experience in this field, I feel that I can….

  • For the last /past year I have been

working as….

  • I am a good…. / I consider myself

to be…

  • Since / for….   I have had

experience of….

  • Two years ago I was employed

as……..

  • I worked as ….. before…..
  • I have been working as a…. for the

last two years.

  • My degree is in….
  • I would appreciate a reply at

your earliest convenience

  • Please contact me regarding

any queries you may have….

  • I enclose my CV and would

be glad to attend an interview at any time convenient to you.

  • I enclose references from

….

  • I look forward to meeting /

hearing from you

  • I look forward to receiving

your respond in the near future

  • I will be available for

interview in….

  • I would be grateful if you

would consider my application

Useful Vocabulary  (for a course) Only Formal style

Introductory Phrases

Main body phrases

Closing Phrases

  • I would like to apply

for admission to the……….beginning….

  • I am writing to apply

for a place on the …… course which commences….

  • I would like to be

considered for……..

  • I am very interested

in joining your……classes /course

  • I would like the opportunity to…
  • I would be interested in…
  • I hold a certificate / degree in….
  • I am due to take examinations

in……

  • I have taken / passed the
  • ……examination
  • I hold the following qualification
  • I have completed the following

course

  • I look forward to meeting /

hearing from you

  • I would appreciate a reply at

your earliest convenience

  • I hope that you will consider

me for entry

  • I enclose further details of

my education and qualifications …..

( Use: Present Perfect    /Present Perfect Continuous to talk about recent work / studies  or experiences;

Past Simple to talk about past experiences;

Present Simple to talk about your personal qualities   )

  1. 1. Your interest in the job
  • I want a job that will give me satisfaction and good prospects
  • I believe that I have the proper qualifications and experience for the position of….
  • I believe I have the education, experience and personality that an excellent……..needs.
  • I think I would be a good………….due to my experience.
  • I would like to work for you because…………

- I am very interested in………….

- I enjoy helping people with their problems

  • I hope that my experience coupled with the practical nature of my completed training would make me a good candidate for this job.
  • Despite my lack of formal work experience, I feel that I would be well-suited for the position.
  • I have studied English for six years but I want to spend some time in England in order to improve my spoken English.
  • I would like to broaden my experience as a …….
  1. 2. Your qualifications and training
  • I have………./ I received…… last year

- two A levels in maths and geography

- a driving license

- a degree in Media Studies

- a certificate  /  a diploma    in…..

- top grades there, and…….

  • I obtained…..

- a degree in Sports Science at….. (place) in…….(date)

- three A levels in History, Latin and Arts

  • I have completed….

- a Bachelor’s degree in Archaeology at London University

- my second year…..

  • I passed the examination for the First Certificate in English with grade A.
  • I have been awarded certificates in both English and French and I speak both fluently.
  • I am fluent in spoken and written……….
  • At present I am still studying at college, but I am taking my final exams in May.
  • I am a competent……….as I have completed a course in……….
  • I am a graduate of………..college and my degree is………..
  • I graduated from………University with a degree in……….

  1. 3. Your experience
  • For the last six months I have worked as a ………..
  • For the past two years I have been working as a………in……..
  • I have spent two years working as a …………
  • I have been working for……..since ………..(date)
  • I am good at organizing………
  • I have a good knowledge of……….(history, places of interest, tourist resorts…)
  • I am experienced in ……… (doing something)
  • I have three years experience in this position.
  • I have done a number of training courses
  • I had previous experience with………..     My responsibilities included………..
  • After graduating from the University I was employed as………
  • This has given me a lot of experience of working with different kinds of people.
  • While studying, I worked on a part-time basis at………..as a ………….

  1. 4. Your qualities and skills
  • I am considered to be………./ I consider myself to be…………/ In my school report I was described as…./

I  regard myself as……../ I think I am a…….person. For example, I have….

-  patient, alert, open-minded, dedicated, organized, approachable, understanding, calm, imaginative, creative, knowledgeable, kind, confident, polite, conscientious, tolerant, skilful, logical, able to cope in a crisis, able to work under pressure, punctual, hard-working, fair, enthusiastic, reliable, energetic, sociable, outgoing, a good listener…….

  • I have……….

-  good communication skills, sense of humour, good manners, ability to cope in a crisis, leadership qualities, good organisational  skills,

  • I get on very well with people and I like making new friends

  1. 5. Your additional information and reference
  • I am available for an interview at your earliest convenience.
  • I am available for interview any weekday morning.
  • Since the school holidays include the months of July and August, I will have no other commitments and would be available to work at any time, excluding Saturdays, for as many hours as needed.
  • I have enclosed my C.V.  which  lists my educational background and work experience.
  • I enclose a detailed curriculum vitae in the hope that you will consider my application for entry.
  • I enclose a reference from my present employer.
  • I  have enclosed my C.V. and would be glad to supply any further information required.
  • I would appreciate a reply at your  earliest convenience.

A Letter of Complaint.

Greeting

Dear Mr/Mrs/Ms Green   or Dear Sir/   Madam,

Introduction

- state  the reasons for writing

- state your complaint

- details of what has happened

- when and where the incident took place

Main Body

-present each of the specific points you are complaining about

-give examples/ reasons

Conclusion

-what you expect to happen

Ending

- Yours faithfully /Yours sincerely + your full   name

Useful Vocabulary

Introductory Phrases

Main body phrases

Conclusion Phrases

  • I am writing to draw your attention to… which…..
  • I am writing  in connection with…., which I saw advertised….
  • I am writing to tell you about……
  • I am writing to complain about…
  • I wish to express my strong / complete  dissatisfaction with/at.…
  • I was appalled at the fact that…
  • I feel I must complain about…
  • We were extremely disappointed with…
  • The advertisement said………./ Your advertisement promised…….but to our surprise…
  • Your advertisement clearly stated   that ………
  • According to your brochure…..but in fact….
  • I have to say that I was not at all satisfied with….
  • I am sorry to say that I was extremely disappointed with…. / I was disgusted by…./    I was extremely appalled at….
  • I am sorry to say that your company let us down.
  • I am really not happy about the situation.
  • It was not what we were expecting at all.
  • We expected ….. but….
  • Although …./ Even though…
  • First of all …./ In addition….
  • To make matters worse…./ On top of everything…
  • You can imagine how upset I am at having spent a considerable amount of money on…
  • What are you going to do about it?
  • I would be interested to know what you intend to do about this.
  • I would like to hear your explanation for this.
  • I would like to investigate this matter, and let me know your decision.
  • I demand a full refund…
  • I insist upon full compensation
  • I hope the situation will improve…
  • I hope the matter will be resolved…
  • I hope we will sort this matter out amicably…
  • I would like a full or partly refund
  • I would like a complete refund as soon as possible
  • I feel completely cheated and therefore demand a full refund .
  • Unless….., we shall take matters further

Complaints about

Treatment

Rude/rudeness; hot-tempered; unfriendly; irresponsible;  irritable; incompetent; indifferent; impolite; lazy; slow-minded;

sloppy; wicked ; tactless; abusive

Things/Goods

Zip broken; button missing; sweater shrunk; lining torn;

It didn’t work / was out of work/ doesn’t work properly; the mechanism is stuck;

It was not up to standard.

Hotels/Rooms

Noisy; dirty; damp; uncomfortable ; the bed was hard ; the  room was not cleaned at all;  the rooms  were not up to standard; there were cracks everywhere;….. was cracked……

Food

Overdone/underdone;

salty/ unsalted;  cold; sour;  bitter; tough;

tasteless; uneatable;

stale bread; it smells bad; badly-cooked;

  1. 1. to complain about the quality of the holiday and service:
  • I am writing to tell you about the problem we had with…….

-  the tickets you arranged

-  service offered by your travel agency

  • I am writing to complain about……..

-the service I received during a visit to your restaurant on 8th October. Firstly, I had booked a table for eight o’clock, but when we arrived, our table was not ready and it was half an hour before we were seated. I was very annoyed.

-the quality of the service and food I received on Eagle Airways flight 723 from London to Kyiv on 6th May.

- unpleasant evening at your café on 8 June.

  • I am writing ……..

- to express  my extreme dissatisfaction with the Caribbean holiday I booked with your agency

- to express  my disgust at the facilities and service offered by your travel agency

- to make the strongest possible complaint about the way your ordering office works.

  • I have to say it was the worst holiday I have ever had
  • As you will realize, we are thoroughly disgusted with the holiday your company provided
  • To begin with,……..

-   the hotel was not at all as we had been led to expect from your brochure.

-  we expected to be met at the airport but unfortunately nobody turned up…

– I booked the room with a private bathroom. However, I had to share a bathroom with other guests.

  • Your advertisement clearly stated  that ………..

-  everything was included in the price but we discovered that excursions were extras

– all tours included the price of lunch in a traditional restaurant…….

– all rooms had a view of the sea, mine had a view of a car park and dustbins….

– all rooms had air-conditioning

– all your guides spoke good French, but……

-your guides were very knowledgeable……

  • Your advertisement promised a stay in a top-class hotel. However, the lift was not working at any time during the weekend, despite my repeated requests to have it repaired.
  • Contrary to what the advertisement stated, there was no swimming pool, the rooms were extremely small and there was no maid service
  • Firstly, / Secondly…. / Moreover,…/ In addition, …../ What is more,……/ Furthermore…..

-  the service was extremely slow

-  the resort was crowded with tourists but I had been told that it was quiet and unspoilt.

– the hotel was near a construction site and the constant noise was very irritating.

– it was  really noisy as it was on a main road

– the noise made by the children’s portable radios was unbearable

– I could not sleep all night because of the noise from the night club

-  the noise from the disco was so bad that getting to sleep before 2 am on any night was virtually impossible

-  the bed was hard …

– none of the hotels had a sports centre

– my room was not cleaned at all during my stay…

-  the bedrooms , were not up to standard: in our room, the walls were damp, the basin was cracked……

– the …..in my room was broken, and despite my three/ repeated  requests for it to be repaired, nothing was done

– I had to take a long bus ride every day to get to the beach. However, the brochure said that the beach was only a ten-minute walk away

– I went on the sightseeing tour, which I had been looking forward to. I was very disappointed to find that the    guide clearly knew nothing about the area.    / ……… the guide knew less about Scotland than I did.

– I paid for a tour. However, the tour guide was sick, and no replacement guide was found.

  • I was not at all satisfied with the service or the food.

– Firstly, the service was very slow. We had to wait……minutes to be seated although we had booked a table a   week in advance.

– Moreover, the food was badly cooked as our steak was tough and the chips were greasy.

-Despite the restaurant’s claim of fast service, we had to wait 20 minutes to give our order and a further 20   minutes for the food to be served

-Furthermore,……… The advertisement describes the food at….as delicious. However, the chips were raw, the  meat was still frozen in the middle and the tomatoes were rotten.

– When the food arrived, it had not been properly heated. Apart from being unappetizing, this is extremely   dangerous, as inadequate heating can result in severe food poisoning.

-To make matters worse, the waiter was rude. He spilt coffee on my wife’s dress and didn’t even apologise.

  • In view of all the problems we had, I feel your company should refund our money.
  • I look forward to receiving a satisfactory reply. If I do not receive satisfaction, I am going to write to the TV programme ‘Inform TV’ and expose your operation.

  1. 2. to complain about the quality of the things you bought:
  • I am writing to complain about…………….

-  a VGC stereo which I gave my son for Christmas. Almost immediately, things started going wrong…

-  the poor quality of the items which I received from your company

-  a damaged…..I bought at your shop

– the quality of an appliance I recently purchased from your company.

– a faulty computer I bought in your shop, and also about your inadequate after-sales service.

  • You advertise “top quality”, I felt that the product I purchased was well below the standard I expected…
  • Firstly,……/ Secondly,……/ Moreover,…/ In addition, …../ What is more,……

- the product I was given was not the model I had asked for.

– the model I received was not the model advertised on television. It was a huge , ugly, old-fashioned model.

– ……..worked perfectly for the first few days but now it has gone wrong.

– the battery went  flat after only two hours. However, the instructions said the battery lasted for 16 hours.

– ……….has broken in spite of the fact that I have only used it three times

-………..has a scratch across the front.

  • In spite of the fact that I paid for  a set of five compact discs, there were only three in the box.
  • Although / Even though………..

-   your advertisement says that the………..will run for 10 hours on the same batteries, this is not the case. I had to

change the batteries after only 5 hours of use.

-   I have only used the……. once, it no longer works.

-   the bicycle was brand new, the chain came off the first time I rode it.

  • My two-year-old daughter cut herself on the toy even though you claim it is safe for children
  • The shirt’s bright red collar has turned pink, despite the fact that the label states that it can be washed at high temperatures without the colours fading
  • I still haven’t received the goods I ordered in spite of the fact that I sent you cheque three weeks ago.
  • I would like to hear your explanation for the above problems, and I would also like to have all or part of my money  refunded
  • I have now been waiting a month for a replacement.
  • I trust that you will give this matter serious consideration and that this won’t be repeated
  • I insist that the product be replaced .
  • I would appreciate it if the faulty appliance could either be replaced or repaired as soon as possible
  • Unless I receive the equipment by the end of this week, I will have no choice but to cancel my order.
  • As you can imagine, I am extremely upset. I feel I am entitled to a full refund, in addition to a written apology from the local manager.
  • I am returning the………. with this letter and would be grateful if you could send me a new one or refund the money.
  • I demand that I should be given a full refund, or I will be forced to take legal action.
  • I should be grateful if you could arrange either for a technician to come and put the fault right, or for a substitute computer to be delivered to me immediately.
  • I have already written to you twice. Nevertheless,  / However , you have not taken any action.
  1. 3. to complain about the disgraceful treatment you received from somebody:
  • I am writing to express my strong dissatisfaction at/ with ……

-.the disgraceful treatment I received from one of your shop assistants.

-the terrible behavior …..

-attitude / rudeness of….

  • I was deeply offended by the behavior of the sales assistant when I went to complain……..      I find this behavior unacceptable.
  • I am writing to inform you that I was absolutely horrified by the rudeness of ………    She/he was not only…..but also……….
  • The crew were totally indifferent to the passengers. A fellow passenger, an elderly man, required assistance and repeatedly pressed the call button. He received no attention whatsoever.
Transactional Letters

Definition

Letters Types

Style

Tasks

These are letters which respond to writing input (advertisements, other letters, notes, invitations, etc.) and /or visual prompts (maps, drawings, etc.)
  • Letters of complaint
  • Letters of application
  • Letters giving / asking for information
  • Letters giving / asking for advice
  • Letters of invitation
  • Formal
  • Semi-formal
  • Informal
(depending on who you are writing to)
  • Include all the factual information given in the rubric
  • Give this information in full sentences, using your own words.
  • You may need to summarize some information, or explain the results / importance of some facts, but you should not change the facts you are given.
  • Each paragraph deals with only one topic.

Asking for information

Introductory Phrases

Main body phrases

Closing Phrases

Formal

  • I am writing to inquire about…/ in connection with…/ regarding….
  • I’m writing in response to…/ …for information about…/…to ask whether
  • With reference to your advertisement in…. (the title of the newspaper…), I am writing to ask for more information about…….

Informal

  • I want you to tell me…
  • Can you tell me…
  • Can you send me….
  • Can you let me know…

Formal

  • I would appreciate some information about…
  • Could you possibly send me…  ( further details)
  • Would it be possible to send me…
  • I would like some more information about….
  • First of all, I would like to know if……..
  • I would be grateful if you could give me some information about…/ …if you could tell me…./ …if you could send me this information ( details of the courses you offer) as soon as possible
  • Could you give me some more information about…?
  • I would also like to know if there is………
  • Let me know how much it costs, could you?
  • Can/Could you tell me how many people will be in the group?
  • Would it be possible to add……?( another name to the list of participants)
  • I would like to know whether/if we can hire the rooms for the whole weekend..
  • Finally, I would like to know if…/where…/what/…

Informal

  • Can you  send me…. / tell me…
  • I want to know…/I want you to tell me…
  • Can you  also find out….
Formal

  • I look forward to receiving your reply
  • I look forward to receiving….
  • I would appreciate it if you could inform me as soon as possible.

Informal

  • Please let me know…
  • Please send me details.
  • Tell me soon.
  • Send me the details…
  • Thanking you for your help in this matter
  • I look forward to hearing from you
  • I hope to hear from you soon

Giving information .

Introductory Phrases

Closing Phrases

Formal

  • I am writing in reply………….

- to your letter asking for information   about…

-to your query…

  • I am writing in response to your letter requesting information on…
  • I am writing to let you know about…..
  • I am writing to inform you about….
  • I have managed to get some information about…
  • I am writing to tell you the possibilities for….
  • I am pleased to be able to assist in your enquiries…
  • The following information is what was requested…

Informal

  • You wanted to tell you…
  • Remember the information you wanted?
  • This is what I found out.
  • This is what you asked me about.
  • I hope this is the information you were looking for.
Formal

  • I hope that I have been of some assistance / help  to you.
  • Please inform me if I can be of any further assistance.
  • I trust that this is the information you require.
  • I hope I have answered all your questions.
  • Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any further queries / if you require any further information
  • Do not hesitate to contact me should you require further assistance.

Informal

  • I hope this will help you…
  • I’m glad I could help you.
  • Let me know if you need any more help.
  • I hope this will help you…
  • Hope this was what you wanted…
  • Write back and let me know what you think is best
  • Write and tell me your decision
  • Write back and let me know what you have decided

Не забувайте час від часу відвідувати сайт Українського центру оцінювання якості освіти: http://testportal.gov.ua/